Titanium CNC Machining
Titanium CNC machining at GTA Machining Solutions is as common as machining aluminum. As one of the strongest metals, titanium has the lowest modulus of elasticity and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of all metals. Titanium is one of the most difficult materials to process and machine. Titanium can be machined, but it requires additional steps and more time. This is because titanium has a high tensile strength and a low thermal conductivity. For example, in order to machine titanium, it’s necessary to use lubricants that don’t react with the metal or coolant that doesn’t boil at the same temperature as titanium .This can be contrasted with aluminum and steel, which are much easier to machine, as aluminum has a significantly lower tensile strength and is highly reactive with lubricants.
A mineralogist and chemist from England named William Gregor discovered the compound in 1791. It was not until 1795 that he realized it was an independent element. German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth named the Titans of Greek mythology after it.
Titanium Material Properties
- High structural efficiency due to an elevated strength-to-density ratio
- High corrosion resistance, excellent resistance to seawater, chlorides, and acidic media that oxidize and sour
- This material is excellent at elevated temperatures (up to 600 degrees Celsius (1100 degrees Fahrenheit))
- Low density, roughly half the weight of steel, nickel, or copper alloys
- Fatigue strength is high in environments containing air and chloride
- Exceptionally high fracture toughness in chloride and air environments
- Low modulus of elasticity · Low coefficient of thermal expansion
- Erosive, corrosion-proof, and abrasion-proof
- The material is essentially nonmagnetic
- Cryogenic properties that are excellent
- Allergen-free, nontoxic, and fully biocompatible
- Ratio of ballistic resistance to density is high
- Exceptional intrinsic shock resistance
- Radioactivity with a short half-life
- An exceptionally high melting point
The titanium is a high strength light weight material, and considered to be superior metal, because its high strength to weight ratio. Symbol Ti, is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust. Almost all rocks contain small amounts of titanium, but there are no large deposits of the metal. A titanium alloy is a metallic alloy with a shinny gray color, a low corrosion rate, and a high strength.
Titanium is the first element in the D-block of the periodic table. The atomic number of this metal is 22, meaning it has 22 electrons and 22 protons; its atomic weight is 47.867 Daltons. The electronic configuration of titanium places it in period 4 and group 4 of the periodic table. Titanium metal has two electrons residing in the fourth orbital, forming the configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2. Chemical bonds and some other properties of the element are explained by this electronic configuration
The physical properties of titanium metal are considered to be superior. As a physiologically inert element, it is considered to be nontoxic. Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, it is an ideal candidate for lightweight yet strong applications, such as joint replacements and dental implants. Its melting and boiling points are high, and it is very strong, with a density of only 4.5 grams per cubic centimeter. Approximately 1650 degrees Celsius (3000 degrees Fahrenheit) is the melting point of titanium metal. Titanium boils at 3287 degrees Celsius. The high melting and boiling points of titanium make it a very useful metal for refractory purposes. Due to its oxygen-free environment, it is a ductile metal. As a result of its lustrous grey-whitish appearance, it is also useful for coating metal and as a display material.
Furthermore, titanium dioxide in pure form has a high refractive index, resulting in high optical dispersion – greater than diamond’s. Comparatively, titanium has a low thermal and electrical conductivity, but it exhibits superconductivity when cooled below 0.49K temperature, which is its critical temperature. Titanium in its elemental form can become highly radioactive when bombarded with deuterons.
There is almost 99.2% pure titanium in the world. It is a lustrous, low-density, corrosion-resistant metal. In addition to sulfuric acid, moist chlorine gas, chloride solutions, hydrochloric acid, and most organic acids, it is also resistant to strong liquids. As the only element that can burn in nitrogen gas, it stands out as the only element that can burn in air. A low-grade steel alloy has a strength of 63,000 pounds per square inch, roughly equal to titanium’s ultimate tensile strength of 434 MPa. Due to its 45% lighter weight, titanium can replace steel, which is a major benefit. In addition to being twice as strong as aluminum, it is 60% denser as well. It is possible to reach a tensile strength of 200,000 pounds per square inch when titanium alloys are mixed with other metals. Due to its relatively low hardness, titanium can lose its strength when heated above 430°C. Upon reaching 880 degrees Celsius, titanium converts from a hexagonal to a body-centered cube. Once the transition temperature of 880 C is reached, the specific heat starts to increase dramatically. Nevertheless, the specific heat of the element is constant when it is in cubic beta form.
Zirconium and silica share significant chemical similarities with titanium metal. Silica, titanium, and zirconium are all members of the first transition group of the periodic table. The periodic table places titanium in group 4 (IVB), in the middle. According to the periodic chart, elements are related chemically according to their arrangement. Due to its position between metals and non-metals on the table, titanium exhibits properties of both.
When exposed to air, titanium metal and its alloys will immediately oxidize, just like magnesium and aluminum. At around 1,200 degrees Celsius, titanium begins to react with oxygen molecules, and it can exhibit the same behavior at 610 degrees Celsius when oxygen molecules are pure.
Despite its inert nature, titanium does not react with oxygen and water at ambient temperatures because it behaves as an inert element. Such behavior is caused by titanium’s tendency to form a passive oxide coating that protects the material from further oxidation. The protective layer can be as thin as 1 – 2 nm and as thick as 25 nm. As a result, the metal’s corrosion rate depends upon the period of time it has been exposed to oxygen. An almost four-year process is required to create a layer 25nm thick.